SUMMARY: The report explores pathways to implement coal transitions and summarises key findings from case studies in six countries (China, India, Poland, Germany, Australia and South Africa). The report also draws from findings in earlier phases of the project, including global analysis of the impact of coal transitions on steam coal trade and analysis of past coal and industrial transitions in over 10 countries, as well as political economy aspects of coal.
KEY FINDING / RECOMMENDATIONS: Coal transitions are already happening. Due to both climate and non-climate policy factors, global coal consumption is likely to reverse in the early 2020s. The analysis of the techno-economic scenario required to stay below 2°C temperature increases for all six countries showed that by 2040-2050 coal can be replaced with a portfolio of alternative energy sources. Coal transitions can strengthen global climate action and deliver other social and economic objectives. In South Africa, diversification from coal in the power sector would help reduce the cost of supplying electricity while limiting the risk of cross-subsidisation of the power sector by the coal export sector.