Concrete is the most manufactured product on the planet. It is the second most consumed product after water. Unfortunately, the manufacturing of Original Portland Cement (OPC), which accounts for 98% of global cement production, is highly energy intensive and involves a chemical process of converting limestone into clinker which releases massive quantities of CO2, and currently accounts for 8% of all global greenhouse gas emissions. If cement demand increases as expected, and the industry does not embark on a low-carbon pathway, it is possible that by 2050 cement production alone could account for almost one quarter of all global greenhouse gas emissions. This research report looks at the universe of possible solutions along the cement value chain to make the industry more climate compatible.