SUMMARY: The transition to a low-carbon world will reshape the metals value chain from shifting demand for specific metals to the methods of production to access to essential inputs, such as energy and water. Climate-change impacts will likely affect both supply-side and demand-side dynamics. The most vulnerable groups comprise miners, their communities, and small businesses that supply goods and services to the dominant companies or to miners’ households. Because mining and refining are highly concentrated, nine districts are most vulnerable to changes in the metals value chain as the communities relying on the value chain are rural towns.
KEY FINDING / RECOMMENDATIONS: Among proposed interventions are extending the Social and Labour Plans to smelters and refineries; promoting technological innovation to reduce long-run job losses; supporting municipalities in the platinum belt to diversify their economies and build long-term resilience and sustainability; strengthen active labour market measures to help miners transition to other livelihoods; providing income support for vulnerable workers and communities during the transition to new livelihoods.